Founded in 1946, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 164 national standards bodies, broken down into three levels:
Technical experts from around the world who work in a particular field are brought together to develop international standards through the (more than 250) ISO technical committees. Many of these committees cooperate with industry- and geography-specific organizations to create, review and update (as necessary) the thousands of standards under the ISO collective umbrella.
Some of the other organizations that cooperate with the ISO are:
For a good explanation of the ISO and how "Great things happen when the world agrees" see this short brochure.
Founded in 1906, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a not-for-profit, quasi-governmental organization, responsible for consensus-based international standards and conformity assessment for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. As with the ISO, the standards work of the Commission is carried out through technical committees and subcommittees, created and supervised by the Standardisation Management Board. The 88 National Committees, one for each member country (62 full members and 26 associate members) represent over 97% of the world's population. They serve world markets and society by promoting world trade and economic growth and encouraging the development of products, systems and services that are safe, efficient and environmentally friendly.
Founded in 1865 to facilitate international connectivity in communications networks, the International Telecommunication Union (originally the International Telegraph Union), as the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies, now allocates global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develops the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strives to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide. They are committed to connecting all the world's people – wherever they live and whatever their means.
Another international organization not often associated with standardization and the considerations needed for their implementation is the World Trade Organization (WTO). Their Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement deals with the standards and regulations implemented by nations to achieve legitimate policy objectives, such as the protection of human health or safety, or the protection of the environment. The TBT Agreement strongly encourages the 164 members of the WTO to base their measures on international standards as a means to facilitate trade by providing a predictable trading environment. Here is a link to a short brochure published by the WTO on the TBT Agreement.